June 2024

Professor Wolfgang Langbein, affiliated with the Ladaklab group, gives oral presentation at SPIE Photonics upon 4Pi two-photon lithography, demonstrating sub-100nm isotropic voxels. The presentation can be found here.

Joe Askey presents poster at International Conference on Magnetism, upon sub-100nm 3D magnetic nanowires.

May 2024

Privilege to give an invited talk at the 3D Nanomagnetism SPICE workshop. The talk can be watched at this link.

A big thank you to Peter Fischer and Adekunle Adeyeye for the conceptualisation and organisation. Fantastic to catch up with all of the beautiful work being carried out in the community.

February 2024

A study has been published in APL Materials whereby we image 3DASI lattices using transmission x-ray microscopy, with collaborators at Berkeley Lab. Measurements confirm the 3D cross-section of the underlying magnetic nanowires and show magnetic ordering upon the surface. The article can be found here.

October 2023

Sam Ladak gives invited presentation at the 3D Nanomagnetism session at MMM, Dallas.

August 2023

A study has been published upon the phase diagram of 3D artificial spin-ice. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, our team have identified a number of charge-ordered phases in these systems, including a double-charge and single-charge monopole crystal. Experimental 3DASI systems were fabricated and demagnetised, yielding an out-of-equilibrium state with crystallites of magnetic charge superimposed upon an ice background. The article can be found here

June 2023

Sam Ladak gave invited presentation at “Frontiers in Artificial Spin-ice”, Lenzburg, Switzerland. In addition, Dr Joseph Askey wins poster prize for his work upon sub-100nm nanowires and attempting to realise thermal 3D artificial spin-ice. A big thank you to Laura Heyderman and team for hosting this fantastics workshop.

Later in June, Sam Ladak gave another invited talk at CMQM 2023.

May 2023

The research of Sam Ladak, along with Anjan Barman, Andrii Chumak, Will Branford and Dirk Grundler are featured in article “Those magical magnons”, within the technology magazine Shaastra.

April 2023

This month a  study has been published  upon spin-wave propagation in magnetic nanowires of crescent shaped cross-section. The study has been led by  the group of Prof Maciej Krawczyk (Adam Mickiewicz University) and in collaboration with Prof Anjan Barman (Bose Centre, India). The article can be found here.

December 2022

We are once again pleased to receive a large award from EPSRC to study 3D nanostructured materials in collaboration with academics in Exeter and Southampton.

Dr Sam Ladak, together with Amalio Fernandez-Pacheco (Zaragoza) and Peter Fischer (Berkeley) , publish an editorial upon our special issue upon “The Science and Technology of 3D Magnetic Nanostructures”. The article can be found here.

November 2022

Dr Sam Ladak and Dr Arjen van Den Berg contribute towards a book chapter upon “Complex-Shaped 3D Nanoarchitectures for Magnetism and Superconductivity”, together with other international co-authors. The chapter can be found in the book “Curvilinear Micromagnetism: From Fundamentals to Applications”, published by Springer. An electronic copy can be found here.

July 2022

This month we have two studies published. Firstly, we have identified a new type of domain wall in cylindrical magnetic nanowires. We have named it the asymmetric dual Bloch point domain wall and it has a unique topology combining aspects of two other common walls found in these systems. The publication can be found here.

Secondly, we have harnessed a sacrificial layer with two-photon lithography in order to realise isolated 3D magnetic nanostructures with no background sheet film. This allows optical magnetometry to be harnessed in order to study a variety of magnetic nanowire and 3D artificial spin-ice structures. This work will be published shortly.

February 2022

Dr Sam Ladak has contributed to “The Roadmap on Spin-Wave Computing”, writing a section upon “Magnetic charge transport and spin-wave propagation in 3D nanostructured lattices”,  in collaboration with Prof Anjan Barman, Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, India. This has been published in the IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. The article can be found here.

November 2021

We are excited to announce a special issue of APL Materials upon the subject “Science and Technology of 3D Magnetic Nanostructures”.

This special issue is now open for submissions and is guest edited by Sam Ladak (Cardiff U.K.),  Amalio Fernandez-Pacheco (University of Zaragoza, Spain) and Peter Fischer (Lawrence Berkeley Lab, U.S.)

More information can be found here.

October 2021

We are currently recruiting for students wishing to undertake a PhD in 3D artificial spin-ice structures. For informal enquiries or details of the application process, please contact Dr S Ladak.

August 2021

We are delighted to have been awarded funding to pursue a Leverhulme Trust research project upon ordering in complex 3D magnetic nanostructures.

June 2021

Our latest joint work with Prof Anjan Barman presents the first observation of coherent spin waves in a 3D artificial spin ice system. The work has been published in Nano Letters. The article can be found here

May 2021

Our latest work upon 3D artificial spin-ice (3DASI) has been published in Nature Communications. The study which was carried out in collaboration with theorist Dr Michael Saccone, Los Alamos National Lab, shows that the broken symmetry of a 3DASI surface changes magnetic charge nucleation and propagation. The article can be found here

February 2021

Dr Sam Ladak contributed to “The 2021 Magnonics Roadmap”, writing a section upon “Novel Fabrication Techniques for Magnonics”, in collaboration with Adekunle Olusola Adeyeye, Durham University. This has been published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Physics. The article can be found here

March 2020

Paper published: “Use of Two-photon Lithography with a Negative Resist and Processing to Realise Cylindrical Magnetic Nanowires”, in Nanomaterials. The article can be found here

February 2020

Review published: “Harnessing Multi-Photon Absorption to Produce Three-Dimensional Magnetic Structures at the Nanoscale”, in Materials Journal. The article can be found here

November 2019

Sam Ladak gives invited talk at MMM, Las Vegas.

October 2019

We welcome  Edward Harding as a new PhD student.

January 2019

Very excited to announce that our recent work upon 3D magnetic frustrated lattices has been published in the new Nature Publishing Group journal, Communications Physics. The article can be found here.


Group members present at Intermag 2019, Washington DC


July 2018

Group photograph


April 2018


We are pleased to announce that our work in collaboration with Prof Anjan Barman upon time-resolved magnetisation dynamics within 3D tetrapod structures has now been accepted by Nanoscale.



We are pleased to announce that our recent publication on 3D nanostructured micro-lenses has been accepted in Optics Express. This publication was written in collaboration with Prof Peter Smowton. The preprint can be found here.

Our group presents latest work at Magnetism 2018.


January  2018

We have fully funded PhD studentships available. Please see this link for more details: PhD studentships

November 2017

We are absolutely thrilled to have received a large award from the Engineering and Physics Research Council in order to improve the resolution of two-photon lithography.


May 2017

Our work upon two-photon lithography and 3D magnetic nanostructures has been accepted by Nano Research and a copy of the publication can be found here


April 2017

Group member Matthew Hunt presents his work upon 3D magnetic nanostructures at Intermag 2017, Dublin.

Intermag 2017jpg

October 2016

We welcome Andrew May to our research group. Andrew will be pursuing a PhD upon 3D magnetic nanowires.


July 2016

We welcome Lucas Chapuis to the group, who will be working with us over the summer.


June 2016

Group members have come to IBM Research, Zurich to measure our 3D magnetic nanostructures. We thank Rolf Allenspach and group for his hospitality.


May 2016

Fully funded PhD position available upon 3D magnetic nanostructures within our laboratory, starting in October 2016. If interested then please send me an email (LadakS at Studentship advert can be found here.

April 2016

Poster prize_magnetism2016Congratulations to group members Ifan Williams and Matthew Hunt on winning the best poster prize at Magnetism 2016. The work demonstrates how we are able to fabricate 3D magnetic nanostructures with feature sizes of approximately 500nm. We expect further work to reduce this to approximately 200nm.

January 2016

Nanoscribe install

Very pleased to announce that our new two-photon lithography system has been installed within our lab and is now operational. The system is capable of fabricating 3D nanostructures down to a feature size of 200nm. The system has been installed within a dedicated class 1000 cleanroom situated within our laboratory. We will be using the system intensively in order to manufacture 3D magnetic nanowires and structures.

December 2015


Nanoscribe are here to install the new two-photon lithography system. Acceptance test has been completed and we have written our first 3D nanostructures shown above. The picture shows a 3D woodpile structure with feature size <200nm.

3D Nanomagnetism Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University