3D Nanomagnetism


We are interested in all aspects of nanomagnetism but our main research area is in the area of 3D nanomagnetism. This is a relatively new research area that has only been made possible due to new fabrication technologies. We are interested in the propagation of simple transverse and Bloch point domain walls within single cylindrical magnetic nanowires. By using these wires as building blocks we are attempting to realise more complex 3D nanomagnetic crystals. Within these materials each cylinder is single domain and mimics the Ising spins within bulk frustrated materials such as spin-ice. By probing the magnetism within these bars using sophisticated imaging techniques and magnetometry we hope to demonstrate the first 3D artificial spin-ice that has been made by design using a 3D lithography technique.

2D Artificial Spin-ice


A large proportion of our previous high impact publications were on the subject of 2D artificial spin-ice. We are continuing to work on this subject by exploring novel lattice geometries and exotic ordering transitions that occur as a function of temperature.

Two-photon Lithography Resolution Enhancement

Much of the work that we do makes use of two-photon lithography in order to fabricate complex 3D magnetic nanostructures. The feature size that we can achieve is limited by the wavelength of the laser, optics and resist. We are working with world-leading non-linear optical microscopy experts in order to modify our existing system and achieve smaller feature sizes. This involves the installation of shorter wavelength lasers, the trialling of specialist resists and more sophisticated non-linear optical techniques.

3D Nanomagnetism Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University